21st Century Writing by M. DiEdwardo

 

Copyright 2015 M. DiEdwardo

Student-directed pedagogical models and 21st century themes fuse to ignite a learning community for reflection, discovery, and social networking to motivate the 21st century student.

by  Maryann DiEdwardo

 

Abstract

 

Thesis: Writing fiction, non-fiction, poetry and drama as a learning community in English curriculums in distance settings with self-assessments through metacognitive pedagogy can improve student learning and achievement.

 

 

 

 

 

Stories that students create in the new literature of the social network become the new voices for a global cultural literature revolution. By telescoping into a shorter version of oral history, writers succeed in the learning community. The framework short story fuses authentic assessment and multiculturalism as a focus to envision the student in a creative process to offer transformation.

 

 

 

Globalization of the literary canon requires applications of the aspects of oral history traditions. My class is organized to become a learning community with a focus writing short stories as authentic assessments to develop student voices.

 

As cultures converge in global 21st century classroom, students of multiethnic backgrounds require varied models to succeed. Reading, writing, and arithmetic which served our industrial society may be enhanced by a new fourth “R” or remembrance as educational focus for the age of technology and multiculturalism. Language is the basis of classrooms whether traditional, enhanced or distance. In fact, Howard Gardner, in Frames of Mind (1983 page 78), regards the “rhetorical aspects of language as the ability to use language to convince other individuals of a course of action; the mnemonic potential of language to help one remember information; the role of language in explanation and the potential of language to explain and reflect on itself as in metalinguistic analysis.”

 

Language based upon oral history can connect cultures in classrooms. My presentation centers upon the short stories of Chinua Achebe and Zora Neale Hurston and student examples of multiethnic students writing their own oral histories. I also offer examples of current social networking as a framework for achievement. Students read the works of multicultural authors and create audio presentations in youtube. Music, photography, art, pinterest, twitter and facebook become the new literature that enhances learning. Stories that students create in the new literature of the social network become the new voices for a global cultural literature revolution. Mirror the classroom by following activities that students can perform before they enter the classroom.

 

By telescoping into a shorter version of oral history, writers succeed in the learning community. The framework short story fuses authentic assessment and multiculturalism as a focus to envision the student in a creative process to offer transformation.

 

I actively engage students by 1) reading key articles by scholars in the field in blogs, wikis, web sites, books, pamphlets, newsletters, or journals or other material 2) demonstrating techniques of close reading in order to explicate a text with terms of the literary scholar that apply to writing across the curriculum 3) and differentiating among major literary genres to converse, to analyze, and to use cultural heritage.

 

Journey through technology one student at a time to create new voices to develop language skills.

 

 

 

Learning strategies focus on Multiple Intelligence Theory, Life Story Writing, Studying Oral Histories, Writing Process Theory, Student-Directed Learning and Learning Communities, models for  Authentic Assessment which engage student writers by breaking down interior interpersonal borders through metacognition.

 

Methodology:                                                                         CEA 2014

 

 

 

 

 

1.     Studying Oral Histories                              Hansberry, Poe, Lucas, 

 

 

 

2.     Writing Process Theory, Journaling, Electronic Research, Groups

 

 

 

3.     Student-Directed Learning and Learning Communities.

 

 

 

The Short Story in the African American Literary Tradition with an Authentic Assessment: Transforming Teaching Methodology and Student Learning 

 

The short story as an authentic assessment engages students. By the concentrated study of sets of short stories that contain meaningful themes, characters, human emotions, readers can significantly conquer self doubt and break down self imposed borders. Through reading, analyzing, discussion and eventually writing short stories, creators develop self understanding. Authentic Assessment engages student writers by breaking down interior interpersonal borders. As a framework for teaching composition or introductory literature classes, the short story concentrates on the understanding of the themes of literary consciousness. My presentation centers upon the short stories of Zora Neale Hurston and Chinua Achebe. The most important aspect of the short story as a literary powerhouse for both teacher and student remains the fact that reading and writing the genre can elicit personal transformation. Students can write a few pages of text that reveal understanding of the self through interpretations that they learn. Metacognitive Pedagogical Models for Literature Study in Higher Education advocate student-directed pedagogical models. Interestingly,   21st century pop culture themes fuse to ignite a learning community for reflection, discovery, and social networking to motivate the 21st century student. Learning strategies based on Metacognitive processes focus on learning with self discovery, cognitive structure to use both logical and spacial thinking, socialization and conversation.

 

 

 

 

 

Key words: authentic assessment; methodology; pedagogy; learning community; writing process theory; Learning Paradigm
    Writing as a Learning Community to Promote Student Authentic Assessment and Transformation

 

 Introduction

 

      In my recent career as a writer, I have published a set of books called Pennsylvania Voices that includes both fiction and non-fiction for all ages. At Lehigh Carbon Community College in 2006, I designed the first distance learning class that the college offered in English 2 with a Classical Literature concentration. The class included short story, poetry, drama and fiction units in an eight week session.

 

  For the past 20 years, I have been managing Learning environments in the area of Distance Learning. It is my specialty. I have created my own system for my own school which I designed 1993-2002. When I completed my Doctoral studies in 2004, I closed my private online programs and became a Computer Based Specialist and Adjunct Professor for 4 area colleges and Universities in the Lehigh Valley. In the process, I lectured on the use of pop culture as a component to creating useful learning environments online; as an additional responsibility, I also acted as course designer for online learning classroom for the first online course offerings at Lehigh Carbon Community College for Literature based English 2. Since 2003, before my appointment at UMUC, I usually was scheduled to  teach 3 distance classes per semester online with institutions such as Northampton Community College and Lehigh Carbon Community College.

 

     I am also experienced in designing learning paradigms and structures online for traditional hybrid and computer based classes for my own online writing school and publishing company 1995-2001, Northampton Community College, Lehigh Carbon Community College, Penn State, Lehigh, and DeSales Universities.  I have lectured at our regional, state and national conferences on technology and learning. I am qualified to teach the following courses and concentrations: American Women’s Literature both pre and post 1900. At DeSales University, I taught Introduction to Drama and American Literature Colonial through Romantic (1450 to 1890) in eight week sessions;  Classical Literature including Greek and Roman Drama, Stage History, Elizabethan Period, Shakespeare, James Joyce, British Poetry and American Literature. My recent classes that I taught at Lehigh have concentrated on the works of Zora Neale Hurston and Toni Morrison; other classes include concentrations in Jack Kerouac and the Beat Period, and British Literature with a specialty in Charles Dickens in my recent presentations for international conferences. In my graduate program at Lehigh, I heavily concentrated on Native American Literature; and in my undergraduate studies at Penn State University, I focused on Stage History and Film Studies.

 

     For the past 5 years at Lehigh University, I have lectured at  conferences for our English and Education Departments on Cultural Diversity and on Feminism. In classes, I offer presentations on Transcendentalism. I also studied American and British Poetry, and I have taught Film Theory which I have emphasized as a themed class to teach writing based on film theory with concentrations in American Film History at Lehigh University in English 1 and 2. I am prepared to teach creative non-fiction, short story, and have recently published a juvenile fiction book  and a set of short stories. My undergraduate degree is in Theatre Arts from Penn State University. At Lehigh University, I concentrated on Stage History 1980 (As You Like It) (performances by Katharine Hepburn, Vanessa Redgrave, Dame Edith Evans) and published a book in 2005 based on my thesis.

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                               

 

    


I. Writing as a Learning Community

 

 

 

 

 

I also offer examples of current social networking as a framework for achievement. Students read the works of multicultural authors and create audio presentations in youtube. Music, photography, art, pinterest, twitter and facebook become the new literature. Stories that students create in the new literature of the social network become the new voices for a global cultural literature revolution. Mirror the classroom by following activities that students can perform before they enter the classroom.

 

 

 

The framework short story fuses authentic assessment and multiculturalism as a focus to envision the student in a creative process. The Outcome: self  understanding and transformation                   

 

   

 

 II. Review of the Research

 

 

 

Flavell coined the term metacognition in the seventies of the last century (Flavell, 1979).

 

 

 

Howard Gardner, in Frames of Mind (1983 page 78), regards the “rhetorical aspects of language as the ability to use language to convince other individuals of a course of action; the mnemonic potential of language to help one remember information; the role of language in explanation and the potential of language to explain and reflect on itself as in metalinguistic analysis.”

 

      Vincent Tinto (2003) Chair of the Higher Education Program at Syracuse University, Learning Community in higher education means

 

Shared knowledge, Shared knowing, Shared responsibility

 

Tinto (2003) concludes: Learning Communities tend to form their own self supporting groups and Learning Community students become more active in the learning process and remain so even after class is over. I can verify his theory. My students at University of Maryland University College tell me this fact: they truly enjoy my class atmosphere; and my class learning community is the reason.

 

 

 

      Participation in the Learning Community enhances the quality of student learning. As students see themselves more engaged they persist at a higher rate. They want to grow as writers in learning communities that encourage writing. Students learn educational citizenship with awareness of their responsibilities in learning experience and their ability to aid others in the experience as well.  Knowledge requires language; knowledge is socially constructed rather than discovered deliver a new vision. My experience reveals learning communities change writers in distance learning settings.

 

      Learning communities are “groups of people engaged in interaction for the purpose of learning” Cross (1998). We can now state this same case positively in a way that includes, but goes somewhat beyond, Dewey’s doctrine that ‘school is primarily a social institution’ and that experience is education. We can now identify the particular experience that educates: constructive conversation. Students learn by joining transition communities in which people construct knowledge as they talk together and reach consensus.  What teachers do is set up conditions in which students can learn. And one of the most important ways teachers do that is by organizing students into transition communities for reacculturative conversation”(1995 Bruffee). According to Cross (1998) The pedagogy of learning community “enhances student learning and persistence and enriches faculty professional lives. I agree with Cross. My whole attitude toward my teaching in the distance setting for the University of Maryland University College is joyous. Every student is a scholar after they experience my classes.

 

 


 

 

 

 

                                                         III. Pedagogical Model

 

     Through student-directed pedagogical model, my class fuses into a learning community for reflection, discovery, and peer editing for student motivation and success. I actively engage students

 

Through the paradigm of active learning, we engage in

 

reading key articles by scholars in the field in blogs, wikis, web sites, books, pamphlets, newsletters, or journals or other material

 

 demonstrating techniques of close reading in order to explicate a text with terms of the literary scholar that apply to writing across the curriculum

 

 and differentiating among major literary genres to converse, to analyze, and to use cultural heritage.

 

     Students possess qualities of memory based upon human every day experiences similar to those experiences within literary works  they read. I play pod casts of sample student essays that show how students recall events or conditions based upon the relationship of reading to memory.  One of my students recalls her own beliefs in mercy killing and relates her heritage based upon family and cultural beliefs in the right to life.   Students use life story writing next to recount experiences that may help them find thesis.

 

   Memory is the cornerstone of the style. History based writing is essential to good story telling. We will base our stories on the works that we read at the library and refer to a set of research as the focus of the story, then add historical fiction techniques such as setting, character, tone, style and plot to

 


 We write for a global multiethnic and ageless audience. Stories can indeed reach all readers.

 

To write, we engage memories of readings, life experiences and imagination. Accordingly, these three patterns compose voice on the written page. But, writing is an essential like skill needed for human dignity.

 


     Social justice as a paradigm for the English classroom resounds with tension and resolution dependent upon the silent resilience of the individual. Mythological Literary Criticism and Film Theory as a lens into archetypes  through analysis of personal essays on identity by James Baldwin, Bernard Cooper, Eric Liu, N. Scott Momaday, Brent Staples compared to the themes of masculinity the Films Finding Forester, In America, The Avengers and the popular DVD series Freaks and Geeks and The Twilight Series reveals visions of the human condition.
In Finding Forester, Jamal, African American, is urban youth, with serious issues, the absence of his father. Furthermore, Jamal’s struggles compare to the comic book figure Thor. Based on Nordic legends, Thor has also is without his father’s full presence (father is in a coma). Both are archetypes who live out the masculine identity through story and emotions. In America also explores the relationship between a male aids patient who is also black to Irish immigrants with striking mythological and archetypical consequences. Pop culture themes in DVD series Freaks and Geeks and The Twilight Series also portray masculinity in the archetypical universes created by current imaginative writers. Freaks and Geeks explores males weaker than the female protagonist. The Twilight Series present masculinity of the different eras to show domination of the feminine as opposed to the masculine.

 

 

 

 

 

     The Passing Light, a novel to change the way readers view poverty, to engage readers to become and serve the poor,  by Maryann DiEdwardo and Patricia Pasda, alludes to the works of Dickens within our story telling patterns that bring new light to the literature of the past and break new ground for literary message of healing heralded by our 21st century narrative built upon our residence in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, as a representation of a culture of peace formed by immigrants.

     In comparison, Charles Dickens Oliver Twist is the story of the orphan Oliver, who runs away from the workhouse only to be taken in by a den of thieves. Combining elements of Gothic Romance, the Newgate Novel and popular melodrama, Dickens created an entirely new kind of fiction, scathing in its indictment of a cruel society, and pervaded by an unforgettable sense of threat and mystery.
Oliver Twist reflects a major thematic concern for author Charles Dickens, that of social justice. This is reflected in his depiction of character types and narrative structure. His interest and concern with highlighting the plight of the poor and the attitudes within society towards them. Dickens was concerned with writing for a wide increasing literate public, meaning that his audience were able to recognise his shape characterisations and insightful social commentary. In particular, Dickens used characterization to comment on the social and moral implications of the industrial revolution on British society. Dickens’s tale of childhood innocence beset by evil depicts the dark criminal underworld of a London peopled by vivid and memorable characters: the arch-villain Fagin, the artful Dodger, the menacing Bill Sikes and the prostitute Nancy.

 


    
     We tell our own histories and write fiction to reveal new writing 
techniques that combine creative non-fiction and fiction as writing is 
a new way to heal. Our new book is about freeing oneself from the  
constrains of an abusive childhood and results of chemotherapy to  
develop neurons and heal through writing about history.
How did we begin our journeys for life through the creative process to 
heal daily, weekly, yearly, and to continue to be well? Our first  
writing experiences were in a kitchen in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, our  

 

hometown.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

        IV. Designing Authentic Assessments as Models to Nurture and to Motivate    

 

    

 

     The short story as an authentic assessment engages students. By the concentrated study of sets of short stories that contain meaningful themes, characters, human emotions, readers can significantly conquer self doubt and break down self imposed borders. Through reading, analyzing, discussion and eventually writing short stories, creators develop self understanding. The most important aspect of the short story as a literary powerhouse for both teacher and student remains the fact that reading and writing the genre can elicit personal transformation. Students will be able to weigh and assess their challenges as they recall heroines or heroes throughout history. In essence, writing students are starting their own historical journeys into the world of literature where adjectives, adverbs, diction, thesis, point of view, voice, tone, theme, style, imagery, language, verbs, parallelism ignite the inner journey toward a clear student writer voice.                  

 

     Authentic Assessment engages student writers by breaking down interior interpersonal borders. As a framework for teaching composition or introductory literature classes, the short story concentrates on the understanding of the themes of literary consciousness. My presentation centers upon the short stories of Chinua Achebe and Zora Neale Hurston.

 

     The most important aspect of the short story as a literary powerhouse for both teacher and student remains the fact that reading and writing the genre can elicit personal transformation. Students can write a few pages of text that reveal understanding of the self through interpretations that they learn. By telescoping thoughts and writing into a shorter version, young writers succeed, and we as educators can powerfully change the methods we use to teach. I connect intrapersonal interpersonal intelligences and linguistic intelligence.

 

     Writing short stories is my authentic assessment at the University of Maryland. The framework I design with short story as a methodology focuses on the student writer in a creative process to offer transformative frameworks. Certainly, the short story as a genre transforms through centering story upon the self discovery of the writer to promote change and personal growth. Furthermore, I use the short story as an authentic assessment to break down borders between the academic desert of literature as a viewed subject to literature as an experienced vast space that transforms.

 

     Albert Chinualumogu Achebe born November 30, 1930 is one of the most significant writers to emerge from contemporary Africa with a literary vision that has profoundly influenced the form and content of Modern African Literature.

 

     The short story “Girls at War” by Chinua Achebe from the collection of his short stories entitled Girls at War and Other Stories. New York: Anchor Books, 1972 as well as his important novel, Things Fall Apart, are the foundation of my introductory lessons in writing for composition students. I form the discussions by offering the idea that Achebe has created a singular important voice, his own spiritual quest to revitalize his nation of Nigeria through his literature. To connect cultures, mine and theirs, the literary scholar and the 21st century students, we watch the music video by The Roots called “Things Fall Apart” which was named after the Achebe’s novel and uses the same themes with a few changes to depict the tensions of the clashes of culture in the city.

 

     Things Fall Apart, published in 1958, is the original African novel in English. Its most striking feature is to create a complex and sympathetic portrait of a traditional village culture in Africa. Achebe is trying not only to inform the outside world about Ibo cultural traditions, but to remind his own people of their past and to assert that it had contained much of value. All too many Africans in his time were ready to accept the European judgment that Africa had no history or culture worth considering. The language of the novel is simple but dignified. When the characters speak, they use an elevated diction which is meant to convey the sense of Ibo speech. This choice of language was a brilliant and innovative stroke, given that most earlier writers had relegated African characters to pidgin or inarticulate gibberish. One has the sense of listening to another tongue, one with a rich and valuable tradition.

 

     Zora Neale Hurston born 1891 and died 1960 “has been rediscovered in a manner unprecedented in the black tradition. Several black women writers in America today, have openly turned to her works as sources of narrative strategies, to be repeated, imitated, and revised, in acts of textual bonding…Hurston claimed that she wanted to write a black novel and not a treatise on sociology. It is this urge that resonates in Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon and Beloved and Alice Walker’s depiction of Hurston as our prime symbol of ‘racial health – a sense of black people as complete, complex, undiminished human beings, a sense that is lacking in so much black writing and literature. In a tradition in which male authors have ardently denied black literary paternity, this is a major development one that heralds the refinement of our notion of tradition: Zora and her daughters are a ‘tradition within a tradition’ a black woman’s voice” (Gates 289).

 

     The short story “Girls at War” by China Achebe and “Magnolia Flower” by Zora Neale Hurston suggest that themes are the first element of literary thought that break down interpersonal borders. Achebe recreates with energy and authenticity, the major social and political issues that confront contemporary African on a daily basis. Hurston uses mythic realism modernism, imagery of the river and “The Mighty One” to create a thematic world with allegory and myth as vehicles for the representation of the conflicts and dilemmas that African American share with all other human beings (Gates and Lemke Introduction).

 

     Next, characters in the two short stories “Girls at War” by China Achebe and “Magnolia Flower” by Zora Neale Hurston signify that interpersonal knowledge students need to filter the literature into meaningful attributes that echo their own lives or aspects of their contemporary culture. Gladys, a beautiful girl who has been forced to become a woman kept by some army officer in her struggle for survival during the war dies in the last scene in a dramatic “shattering of sky” as the reality of the Biafran war in Nigeria. The death forces the reader to see the reality and truth of war. Achebe deals with the themes of African American Tradition, the disintegration of the old tribal customs to political turmoil in Nigeria. On the other hand, Hurston creates Magnolia who experiences the abuse of her father because she fell in love with John; runs away with her lover, then comes back forty years later with her same lover, John by her side, to revisit and to find redemption.

 

 

V. Conclusions

 

Students possess qualities of memory based upon human every day experiences similar to those experiences within literary works  they read. I play pod casts of sample student essays that show how students recall events or conditions based upon the relationship of reading to memory.  One of my students recalls her own beliefs in mercy killing and relates her heritage based upon family and cultural beliefs in the right to life.   Students use life story writing next to recount experiences that may help them find thesis.

 

 

 

 

 

Practical Applications

 

1.      Power Point Case Studies of Class Community creates a Learning Community Atmosphere

 

2.      Student Examples in Blogs and Wikis create Learning Community Criteria

 

3.      Youtube Audio of my teaching strategies with catalysts such as stories enhance the Technology Learning Community

 

4.      Study writing in coffee house or cybercafe free writing encourage learning community relaxation and hands on  practice on how to begin to teach writing of story

 

5.      hand outs with methodology and lessons create calm and confidence in the learning community

 

6.      designing personal course objectives with active learning and scaffolding offer practical solutions to learning strategies to create a balanced learning community for all types of learners

 

7.      participants start online or hard copy journals that are based on life story to enhance the privacy of the learning community to prepare students

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     A professional learning community represents a new approach. It emphasizes continuous learning among all in the particular community with less emphasis on hierarchy. This approach to professional development gives all a greater stake in learning improvement. It also allows for greater collaboration. In education circles, the term learning community has become a notable model. But Frameworks to Promote Professional Learning Communities {such as PLC Blog) offer solutions to educator who wish to promote the learning community framework in the classroom as a interactive model that offers regular contributions to this blog for encouragement and faculty inspiration.  All contributing experts have successfully implemented the PLC at Work™ process. They invite you to post to this collaborative space (PLC Blog) at http://www.allthingsplc.info/wordpress/

 

 


Illustration #1

 

Framework

 

Maryann P. DiEdwardo, Ed.D

 

mad207@lehigh.edu

 

maryannpasdadiedwardo.wikispaces.com

 

Linguistic Framework

 

1.      Curriculum Design includes selected works of Achebe and Hurston.

 

2.      Read and discuss short stories; continue discussion online in blogs.

 

3.      Deconstruction:  analysis of characters, plot, setting and language.

 

4.      Research biographical and historical background.

 

5.      Interpret language using reader-response theory by New Historicism.

 

6.      Connect cultural observations with inclusion of personal narrative.

 

7.      Writing process: drafting.

 

8.      Writing process: submissions.

 

9.      Writing process: presentations.

 

10.   Critique: professor, peer, self.

 

 


Illustration #2 Rubric for Authentic Assessment

 

Dr. Maryann DiEdwardo

 

Rubric for Authentic Assessment  

 

Purpose: The purpose of this assessment is to demonstrate your ability to devise a project strategy, to create a final well designed presentation, to integrate your findings with your own personal views and knowledge in your own words in one of the following formats:

 

Choice #1 Writing

 

Pick one of the following:

 

Travel Journal

 

Sample Assignment: Create a travel journal based on a personal experience and study of course content this semester.

 

Place Memory

 

Reflection on process and designing your own life history project about a living or deceased person’s home or vacation spot. Interview friends or family members.

 

Creative Non-Fiction Story

 

Find a way to engage in storytelling, framing life histories, or remembrances about your own hometown in a travel journal. Engage in remembering place.

 

Film Analysis

 

Write a short summary of your favorite character’s language patterns.

 

Telescope into the dialogue and setting, costume, and lighting, then review all aspects of specific scenes as a way to see ideas in visual form.

 

Mystery is a style, a tone, a set of principles that guides a writer and allows a theme to develop a purpose for writer’s voice.

 

Music Analysis

 

Relate the language in the literary selection to the film OR MUSIC such as the sound track from, LES MISERABLES

 

Juno http://cinemascopian.com/pics/2008oscars/juno.pdf

 

EXAMPLE project thesis question: How does the language of essay, short story, drama or non-fiction writing symbolize the action within film?

 

                                           

 

                                             

 

Choice #2  PowerPoint

 

Pick one of the following:

 

Select a writing project from above and place the project into a PowerPoint.

 

Demonstrate selections of websites and sound bites through video stream or online media like news transcript about how places help or hinder people. Relate the project to our stud this semester.

 

Choice #3 Video or Audio

 

Make a youtube audio project. Authors can use ANY WRITTEN WORD if the author is dead for 75 years. You can read your own  audio tape of  a work of Shakespeare.

 

Choice #4 Facebook Page

 

Facebook Page on an author whom we studied this semester.

 

Where and how to submit: The final project should be submitted as attachment using the Authentic Assessment in the Assignment folder of WebTycho or the private message area to Dr. DiEdwardo.

 


 

 

Illustration #3

 

Three Important Best Practices

 

I will create a detailed course syllabus that relates to all conferences for the first best practice that will keep student paced with explanations of how to finish the poetry explicative, the fiction explicative, study group project, the authentic assessment. I will review the syllabus weekly via email and announcements to remind students to stick to the scaffold plan to build the assignments in conferences step by step.

 

2.     I will build learning activities aligned with course learning outcomes which will include study group, student input in grading the group assignment, and student directed conferences and include case studies, small group and peer to peer activities, project based assignments such as interviews and web searches. I will enter the classroom every 12 hours. For instance, the poetry explicative will have activities that are listed in the poetry explicative and that are the conferences for that sequence. Next, the fiction explicative will have a framework that is also structured or scaffold to teach the set of actions that fiction writers take and that the scholar of fiction uses to write. The study group has steps to take and the learning journal is a weekly unit of study that is based on these assignments or models of poetry and fiction. The authentic assessment is built into the scaffold approach as well with detailed steps that students take that are based on the units they studied in earlier weeks.

 

3.      I will incorporate a variety of learning approaches with adult learning principles since students appreciate subject matter that is relevant to their careers. Higher retention rates are associated with this best practice. Audio feedback is my capstone best practice as students like to hear the comments that I send through private messages as audio recordings. But some like visual feedback and more examples. Telling students about what we do as educators and scholars is also a method I use lately that really works.

 

 


References

 

 

 

 

 

Achebe, Chinua. (1972).  Girls at War and Other Stories. New York: Anchor Books.

 

 

 

Bruffee, K. A. (1995). Sharing our toys: Cooperative learning versus collaborative

 

learning. Change, 27(1), 12–18.

 

 

 

Flavell, J. H. (1979) Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive-

 

 

 

developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34(10), 906 – 911.

 

 

 

Gardner, Howard. (1983). Frames of Mind. New York: Perseus Books.

 

 

 

Hurston, Zora Neale. (1921-1951). The Complete Stories. Introduction by Henry

 

Louis Gates Jr. and Sieglinde Lemke. New York: Harper Collins . Online. E-Book.

 

 

 

Papaleontou-Louca, E. (Ed) (2008). Metacognition and Theory of Mind. Cambridge

 

 

 

Scholars Publishing.

 

 

 

 

 

Tinto, Vincent. Chair of the Higher Education Program at Syracuse University. (2003) “Learning Better Together: The Impact of Learning Communities on Student Success.” High Education Monograph Series 2003-1.

 

http://www.gvsu.edu/cms3/assets/B85DAC41-B7B8-3B9F-A116121D5AE29B05/Learning%20Better%20Together.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

Online Resources

 

 

 

Cross. (1998). Why Learning Communities. Why Now? About Campus. July August

 

1998. http://www.nhcuc.org/pdfs/CrossLC.pdf

 

 

 

DiEdwardo, Maryann. (2010). The Fourth R. Google Books. Online. Available. Access   date 12 March 2012.

 

http://books.google.com/books/about/The_Fourth_R.html?id=DE5dkaqDpXgC

 

 

 

Kim, Smith, Maeng. (2008) “Assessment in Online Distance Education: A Comparison

 

of Three Online Programs at a University.” University of West Georgia, Distance

 

Education Center in by Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, Volume XI, Number 1, Spring 2008.

 

http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/spring111/kim111.html

 

Lai, E. R. (2011). Metacognition: A Literature Review. Retrieved Oct.23/12 from

 

www.pearsonassessments.com/hai/images/tmrs/MetacognitionLiteratureReview Final.pdf

 

 

 

The Online Learning of Distance Learning Administration OJDLA (2013)

 

{“The Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration is a peer-reviewed

 

electronic journal offered free each quarter over the World Wide Web. The journal

 

welcomes manuscripts based on original work of practitioners and researchers with

 

specific focus or implications for the management of distance education programs

 

(OJDLA).”}

 

at http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/browsearticles.php

 

Frameworks to Promote Professional Learning Communities (2013) {PLC Blog)

 

at http://www.allthingsplc.info/wordpress/

 

 

 

 

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